Critical thinking is a process that we use to arrive at a better understanding of what is true in situations that extend beyond verifying simple facts. The subject might be an artistic or literary work. It can be an assertion or claim made by a specific individual, such as a politician, activist, journalist, author, or teacher. Or it can be a whole philosophy, school of thought, or system.
When we use critical thinking, we observe, compare, contrast, and analyze. We interpret using our own knowledge and imagination (often supplemented by the knowledge or ideas of experts). Then we evaluate against accepted criteria to arrive at a claim about the qualities of the subject.
“Critical” is often interpreted as looking for and pointing out what’s wrong with someone’s actions or words. However, “critical” should be a neutral word. The enemies of critical thinking (other than laziness) are our assumptions, biases, and loyalties, as well as our self-interest.